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Bring fact-checked results to the top of your browser search. The evolution of modern theatrical production Underlying the theatrical developments of the 19th century, and in many cases inspiring them, were the social upheavals that followed the French Revolution.
Throughout Europe the middle class took over the theatres and effected changes in repertoirestyle, and decorum. In those countries that experienced revolutionary change or failure, national theatres were founded to give expression to the views and values of the middle class, whose aspirations in these cases coincided with a more general movement of national liberation.
In Englandwhere the Industrial Revolution was more advanced than in the other European countries, the middle class had to struggle for its own theatres against the entrenched power of the two patent houses licensed by the CrownDrury Lane and Covent Gardenwhich had enjoyed an almost total monopoly of dramatic theatre since As early asattempts were made to evade the legal restrictions on building new theatres.
This is probably because there were already sufficient illegal theatres in operation when the act was passed. The boulevard theatres of Paris experienced less trouble in establishing themselves. As the new class came into the theatres, the theatres were cleaned up.
They also dropped the melodrama and attracted a wide audience with the social comedies of Tom Robertson, making a considerable fortune in the process. Throughout the 19th century, cities throughout Europe and North America exploded in size, and industrial centres attracted labour to their factories and mills.
The working-class suburbs of cities and the industrial towns created their own demand for entertainment, which led to the construction of large theatres.
Accelerating this change was the growth of the railways. The pattern of theatre was disrupted in England as productions were mounted in London and sent on tour. The old provincial stock companies folded and theatres became touring venues rather than producing houses.
A breed of managers arose who made money from the possession of the bricks and mortar property rather than by presenting their own productions.
In the United States the Theatrical Syndicate established great fortunes from the New York theatres and the almost unlimited touring circuit that the railways opened up. The change in status from enterprise to industry gave rise to the commercial theatre systems of the West End in London and Broadway in New York City.
Improvement in travel in general made it possible to increase the links between the two systems early in the 20th century, and the exchange of productions further extended the possibilities of profitable exploitation.
Modern theatre began around with the revolt of the younger generation against the material injustices of society. Those in revolt founded so-called independent theatres to present a more critical or scientific view of the workings of society or so-called art theatres to rise above vulgar materialism with the establishment of aesthetic standards.
The independent theatres took the Meiningen Players as their starting point. The art theatres looked to Wagner for inspiration. It hired rooms or theatres where they were available and sold tickets for its performances to a closed membership.
In this way it avoided censorship. The major impact the group made was with a number of naturalistic plays. Following on the scientific developments and the philosophical skepticism of the 19th century, the social reformers of the last two decades of the century probed into the causes of human behaviour and postulated that the meaning of human character was to be found in its interaction with the physical, social, and economic environment.
The actors were expected to ignore the audience and to behave and speak as though they were at home. Zola, the philosopher of the movement, had deplored the fact that the Naturalist theatre began by creating an external representation of the world instead of concentrating on the inner state of the characters.
Strindberg showed that a few carefully selected properties could suggest an entire room. With the ideas of Antoine and Strindberg, the days of flapping canvas doors and kitchen shelves painted on the walls of the set came to be numbered.
The more natural and detailed the acting became, the more it clashed with a painted background. The new pattern of theatre set in France was imitated in Germany during the same period.
On the basis of this and other examples, it could be said that Ibsen pioneered the repertoire, Saxe-Meiningen the staging methods, and Antoine the organizational form for a range of small, independent theatres springing up throughout Europe. Eventually the two arms recombined and were able not only to subsidize performances but also to build their own theatre and mount their own productions.
During the s in France, a similar program of democratization was attempted. In England the works of Ibsen aroused great interest and attracted the attention of the censors.
Shaw remained the mainstay of the independent theatre movement in Britain. His preeminence in the independent theatre in England coupled with the success of Arthur Wing Pinero in the commercial realist theatre led to a major innovation in staging in England. Shaw was able to impose his own interpretation and stage direction on the production of his plays.
Russia also followed the pattern of the independent theatre movement that developed in France, Germany, and England see below Developments in Russia and the Soviet Union. Symbolism developed out of a total opposition to the philosophy that lay behind Naturalism.
It sought an intuitive and spiritual form of knowledge, regarded by its proponents as higher than that which science could provide. If Naturalism attacked the materialist values of society from a critical and reformist standpoint, Symbolism rejected them altogether.What is a "square meal?" What is a square meal?
Excellent question with no simple answers. There are two primary schools of thought: (1) Symbolic/metaphoric (a "square meal" is a substantial, satisfying repast) and (2) An actual scientific analysis proposed by a British physician in the s.
Shaped, to make it easier for people to understand, like a square.
Get the latest science news and technology news, read tech reviews and more at ABC News. Get the latest science news and technology news, read tech reviews and more at ABC News. CHAPTER I: A SOCIAL CONTROL THEORY "Social Control" covers all of the processes which prevent and correct deviance.
Almost every facet of social life has at one time or another been considered as an example of social control. BIO-ELECTRIC TRANSPORTATION January 27, The Alberta oilsands debate is a major part of the world environmental stage, with its excessive CO2 and the politically charged nature of Canada's broken treaties.
The table below presents an abbreviated geologic time scale, with times and events germane to this essay. Please refer to a complete geologic time scale when this one seems inadequate.