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But opportunities for speaking and listening require structure and planning if they are to support language development. This digest describes what speaking involves and what good speakers do in the process of expressing themselves.
It also presents an outline for creating an effective speaking lesson and for assessing learners' speaking skills.
Oral communication skills in adult ESL instruction Outside the classroom, listening is used twice as often as speaking, which in turn is used twice as much as reading and writing Rivers, Inside the classroom, speaking and listening are the most often used skills Brown, They are recognized as critical for functioning in an English language context, both by teachers and by learners.
These skills are also logical instructional starting points when learners have low literacy levels in English or their native language or limited formal education, or when they come from language backgrounds with a non-Roman script or a predominantly oral tradition.
Further, with the drive to incorporate workforce readiness skills into adult ESL instruction, practice time is being devoted to such speaking skills as reporting, negotiating, clarifying, and problem solving Grognet, Its form and meaning are dependent on the context in which it occurs, including the participants themselves, their collective experiences, the physical environment, and the purposes for speaking.
It is often spontaneous, open-ended, and evolving. However, speech is not always unpredictable. Language functions or patterns that tend to recur in certain discourse situations e.
For example, when a salesperson asks "May I help you? Speaking requires that learners not only know how to produce specific points of language such as grammar, pronunciation, or vocabulary linguistic competencebut also that they understand when, why, and in what ways to produce language sociolinguistic competence.
A good speaker synthesizes this array of skills and knowledge to succeed in a given speech act. What a good speaker does A speaker's skills and speech habits have an impact on the success of any exchange Van Duzer, Speakers must be able to anticipate and then produce the expected patterns of specific discourse situations.
For example, a learner involved in the exchange with the salesperson described previously must know the usual pattern that such an interaction follows and access that knowledge as the exchange progresses.
The learner must also choose the correct vocabulary to describe the item sought, rephrase or emphasize words to clarify the description if the clerk does not understand, and use appropriate facial expressions to indicate satisfaction or dissatisfaction with the service.
Other skills and knowledge that instruction might address include the following: Teachers should monitor learners' speech production to determine what skills and knowledge they already have and what areas need development.
General outline of a speaking lesson Speaking lessons can follow the usual pattern of preparation, presentation, practice, evaluation, and extension.
The teacher can use the preparation step to establish a context for the speaking task where, when, why, and with whom it will occur and to initiate awareness of the speaking skill to be targeted asking for clarification, stressing key words, using reduced forms of words.
In presentation, the teacher can provide learners with a preproduction model that furthers learner comprehension and helps them become more attentive observers of language use. Practice involves learners in reproducing the targeted structure, usually in a controlled or highly supported manner.
Evaluation involves directing attention to the skill being examined and asking learners to monitor and assess their own progress. Example of a speaking lesson: Choosing appropriate topics for small talk 1. Show the learners a picture of two people conversing in a familiar casual setting.The Online Writing Lab (OWL) at Purdue University houses writing resources and instructional material, and we provide these as a free service of the Writing Lab at Purdue.
regardbouddhiste.com's lesson plan resource pages. Lesson Plans include ready to go plans for: Conversation, Writing, Pronunciation, Reading, Grammar and more. Planning lessons is hard - here are 64 free ESL lesson plans and templates to use in your next class or as inspiration for your next lesson.
Reading Aloud: Are Students Ever Too Old?. Do you read aloud to your students? Is there ever a time when students are too old to be read to? Many teachers are firm believers in reading aloud—even at the upper grade levels! Material Selection for Esl Reading Class Words | 15 Pages Comprehension of a reading text is made difficult due to the interactive nature of the reading process.
This document was produced by the Project in Adult Immigrant Education, funded by the Andrew W. Mellon Foundation through a grant to the Center for Applied Linguistics ( 40th Street, NW, Washington, DC ).