Taxonomy[ edit ] The Indian cheetah was proposed as a subspecies by British zoologist Edward Griffith in Hilzheimer's type specimen originated in MervTurkmenistan. Samples of 94 cheetahs for extracting mitochondrial DNA were collected in nine countries from wild, seized and captive individuals and from museum specimen.
Our purpose was not to estimate the role of genetic and environmental contribution in the development of cigarette smoking behavior in family members but to display the role of family in the aggregation of this behavior.
The findings, except for the results for mothers, were rather similar to other studies. Based on Table 3smoking in offspring with smoker parents was significantly higher than their counterparts with non-smoker parents.
Therefore, it is clear that cigarette smoking aggregates in families. In other words, if there is at least one smoker member in the family, the odds for being smoker in other members increases by 1. These findings are in line with other studies.
For example, Niu et al. We investigated deeper relationships in the family as well. Regarding spouses, we did not find a significant correlation. Familial aggregation OR was 0.
Although it is difficult to discuss and analyze this strange and insignificant finding, other studies have shown significant relationships between spouses. Based on their study, a smoker spouse has a strong and positive effect on her or his partner.
Regarding cannabis use disorder, Merikangas et al. We did not find a significant relationship between sisters and brothers siblings too. OR between them was 1. However, other studies have achieved remarkable results.
The familial OR increased from 2. This finding has been approved by several studies. As Mirzazadeh and Haghdoust estimated an OR of 1. For example, Thamson et al. He justified this finding as a result of the cultural and environmental effects of the family.
Two reasons can be stated for this observation: We considered profession and education as proxies of socioeconomic status but they may be imperfect. If it is correct, we have not controlled the effect of socio economic status completely.
Therefore, we suggest more studies in future for closer investigation of this familial aggregation by controlling more environmental factors. Second, existence of this familial aggregation after adjustment for environmental factors, provided that all environmental factors are controlled, may be indicative of the role of genetics.
In other words, heredity may be an important factor for developing the habit of smoking in family members. This study was performed on the cross-sectional data, so we could not speak about the role of parents in their offspring smoking status and longitudinal studies are recommended.
This study showed that the smoking behavior aggregated in families significantly. The inter-parent-offspring aggregation is the main component of the familial aggregation. Higher education and age gender interaction were determinants of smoking in the families.
The programs for prevention and cessation of this behavior in the community might be more successful if they are designed in a family-based rather than an individual-based approach. Footnotes Conflict of interest: Motivational interviewing for smoking cessation Review.PDF – Pearson – Comparative Politics Today – A World View, Global Edition # by Kaare Strom, G.
Bingham Powell, Russell J. Dalton. Rheological properties of blood after whole body gamma-irradiation N.S. Selim1, O.S. Desouky1*, S.M.
El-Marakby1, I.H. Ibrahim2, H.A. Ashry1 1Biophysics lab. The nuclear issue has dominated relations between the US and Iran over the past decade.
Now that the two countries have shelved that issue by agreeing to the Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action, it is appropriate to ask where and how the national interests of both countries converge and conflict. Congenital Afibrinogenemia Presenting as Umbilical Bleeding: a Case Report.
L. N. Builes 1,2, A. Jaramillo 1, *. 1 Hematologia Pediatrica, Hospital General De Medellin; 2 Hematologia Pediatrica, Hospital Pablo Tobon Uribe, Medellin, Colombia. Introduction: Congenital afibrinogenemia is a very rare autosomal recessive disease, characterized by the absence of plasma fibrinogen.
Money supply in Iran and the inflationary costs of it.. 34 Conduct of monetary policy in Iran.. 36 Monetary Policy Instruments in Iran .. 37 Health Benefits. While garlic ranks as an excellent source of manganese and vitamin B6, a very good source of vitamin C and copper, and a good source of selenium, phosphorus, vitamin B1, and calcium in our WHFoods rating system, it is the sulfur compounds in garlic that serve as its spotlight nutrients in terms of overall health benefits.